University-industry collaboration in R&D

scale 1-7, 2007–2016

Info Edit
Country2007200820092010201120122013201420152016
Albania1.691.882.202.222.062.282.582.342.343.03
Algeria2.342.292.572.882.331.852.112.262.262.71
Angola2.392.072.132.182.01
Argentina2.883.083.483.823.883.763.703.643.643.43
Armenia2.492.512.772.772.692.893.163.053.053.21
Australia4.384.794.945.135.155.105.064.844.844.27
Austria4.775.034.874.924.994.894.794.684.684.81
Azerbaijan3.183.563.573.203.153.433.363.163.163.56
Bahrain2.192.773.033.263.333.022.933.273.273.73
Bangladesh2.102.172.452.732.632.582.622.562.562.54
Barbados3.083.674.034.114.154.274.284.003.653.31
Belgium5.105.235.305.235.325.525.535.585.585.26
Belize2.45
Benin2.442.572.813.093.313.042.682.682.683.14
Bhutan2.682.682.683.01
Bolivia2.102.222.532.763.143.353.553.543.542.43
Bosnia and Herzegovina2.452.282.332.953.393.904.324.324.322.78
Botswana2.813.223.533.493.593.683.233.143.143.41
Brazil3.413.554.064.294.204.103.983.803.803.25
Brunei3.073.323.703.803.873.613.513.413.30
Bulgaria2.682.893.033.042.963.003.043.003.003.38
Burkina Faso2.562.683.133.333.223.173.243.17
Burundi2.032.633.212.752.312.202.522.782.782.81
Cape Verde3.253.133.133.213.223.223.17
Cambodia2.692.692.892.983.323.523.162.982.983.08
Cameroon2.222.472.753.003.343.233.043.373.373.23
Canada4.874.985.255.405.205.094.934.904.904.58
Chad1.872.062.622.972.952.972.452.242.242.60
Chile3.513.513.914.164.094.204.274.204.203.47
China4.134.514.574.594.534.374.414.404.404.32
Colombia3.253.614.023.974.093.993.853.933.933.66
Congo (Kinshasa)2.90
Costa Rica3.673.904.254.514.314.354.414.364.363.45
Ivory Coast2.202.442.622.372.372.813.343.343.29
Croatia3.643.623.483.443.483.453.463.393.392.87
Cyprus2.953.333.774.033.923.713.794.194.193.35
Czech Republic4.084.204.374.504.474.544.414.004.003.66
Denmark5.025.305.455.345.154.924.814.904.904.84
Dominican Republic2.602.843.303.203.283.343.313.253.252.91
Ecuador2.602.352.452.843.243.423.943.943.943.11
Egypt2.823.043.082.852.602.682.652.432.432.43
El Salvador2.322.533.132.993.113.283.253.813.812.78
Estonia3.874.014.134.194.344.414.394.364.364.08
Ethiopia2.392.732.873.113.133.213.493.463.463.83
Finland5.485.545.625.645.585.605.825.975.975.72
France3.873.933.914.044.244.444.464.584.584.29
Gabon2.172.342.612.612.59
Gambia2.392.953.343.643.543.763.653.333.332.62
Georgia2.272.632.502.532.642.512.672.642.642.72
Germany5.315.375.255.245.165.255.395.345.345.35
Ghana2.442.643.153.233.153.433.463.463.27
Greece2.882.923.173.032.872.863.013.063.062.65
Guatemala3.203.473.713.793.783.783.753.623.623.51
Guinea2.422.192.182.18
Guyana2.292.482.692.843.073.263.663.763.76
Haiti2.032.012.232.292.29
Honduras2.692.732.953.213.363.243.343.943.943.12
Hong Kong4.624.534.364.574.744.854.864.594.594.59
Hungary3.753.984.214.354.354.304.264.274.272.92
Iceland4.654.964.844.975.034.924.774.624.624.78
India3.513.603.803.743.823.854.003.873.874.54
Indonesia3.133.453.834.164.134.184.494.554.554.42
Iran3.183.253.373.323.183.183.02
Ireland4.824.944.964.974.965.105.205.245.245.11
Israel5.164.814.655.085.405.395.405.505.505.60
Italy3.003.063.353.483.483.633.713.733.733.68
Jamaica3.363.423.493.593.483.483.603.793.793.45
Japan4.884.614.654.865.065.034.965.005.004.75
Jordan3.053.323.363.133.073.273.363.823.823.84
Kazakhstan3.013.283.323.032.943.343.433.293.293.45
Kenya3.403.703.923.793.874.174.284.224.224.46
South Korea5.375.074.564.684.664.704.684.624.624.36
Kuwait2.993.093.053.183.162.962.973.103.102.64
Kyrgyzstan2.362.472.412.181.972.032.222.572.572.71
Laos3.373.473.473.47
Latvia3.153.033.193.463.773.743.603.673.673.35
Lebanon3.053.123.253.132.882.883.64
Lesotho2.002.792.933.082.802.542.723.203.202.80
Liberia3.502.912.912.913.75
Libya2.092.542.772.582.552.512.041.74
Lithuania3.273.473.824.254.444.514.564.614.614.12
Luxembourg3.593.874.685.065.024.994.904.904.904.65
Macedonia (F.Y.R.O.M.)2.882.933.323.463.283.173.383.713.713.44
Madagascar2.682.613.063.113.203.213.273.263.263.40
Malawi3.223.283.393.643.493.102.842.842.71
Malaysia4.864.784.634.704.914.985.025.335.335.20
Mali2.372.753.043.243.283.112.893.203.203.15
Malta2.893.063.533.773.793.673.773.863.864.00
Mauritania1.912.192.392.422.402.632.342.032.033.32
Mauritius2.903.143.163.193.213.303.283.193.193.19
Mexico3.193.023.483.724.044.134.083.973.973.63
Moldova2.772.702.752.682.742.742.52
Mongolia2.792.833.053.263.213.213.052.992.992.59
Montenegro2.823.153.613.833.683.734.003.953.953.18
Morocco3.032.792.793.093.193.013.043.233.233.12
Mozambique2.612.763.353.973.793.483.273.283.283.27
Burma (Myanmar)2.062.252.25
Namibia2.712.542.993.393.483.503.523.463.463.26
Nepal2.182.352.432.532.582.742.752.642.642.55
Netherlands4.965.125.155.195.325.305.255.385.385.50
New Zealand4.364.354.684.784.734.864.874.914.914.75
Nicaragua2.332.482.872.932.853.143.322.952.952.95
Nigeria3.093.043.193.093.143.513.292.752.752.67
Norway4.824.924.904.854.794.975.085.025.024.74
Oman3.943.743.653.873.783.784.003.623.623.61
Pakistan3.173.033.143.373.563.443.253.213.213.44
Panama2.853.083.223.313.644.104.254.044.043.38
Paraguay1.881.902.252.662.782.742.762.702.702.47
Peru2.582.682.983.183.193.123.143.103.102.91
Philippines3.083.293.173.273.393.463.583.793.793.48
Poland3.193.043.323.633.643.593.543.503.503.29
Portugal3.593.644.084.484.604.634.604.684.684.03
Puerto Rico4.104.194.334.434.404.464.224.24
Qatar3.544.234.004.525.275.395.475.445.445.23
Romania2.753.093.333.093.003.083.333.593.593.33
Russia3.173.563.763.673.493.423.643.633.633.68
Rwanda3.593.713.803.713.653.653.34
Saudi Arabia3.283.774.024.314.564.504.474.204.203.51
Senegal2.823.103.563.863.713.393.233.643.643.64
Serbia3.213.293.313.473.433.233.193.243.243.15
Seychelles2.963.423.403.40
Sierra Leone2.342.502.402.402.63
Singapore5.285.475.595.445.475.595.625.585.585.47
Slovakia3.663.393.313.263.183.223.293.363.363.31
Slovenia3.793.934.224.173.953.893.773.963.963.76
South Africa4.204.164.484.604.624.514.544.494.494.44
Spain3.413.573.743.984.114.053.983.773.773.51
Sri Lanka3.613.813.673.913.492.983.023.083.083.63
Suriname2.953.163.152.86
Swaziland2.782.492.603.163.353.35
Sweden5.555.565.555.545.525.425.345.335.335.16
Switzerland5.585.635.705.715.785.935.845.795.795.80
Syria2.472.772.472.302.40
Tajikistan2.522.893.173.083.213.433.353.273.274.31
Tanzania3.213.003.323.433.713.773.513.373.373.54
Thailand4.073.753.824.074.154.013.923.953.953.77
Timor Leste2.042.172.332.542.572.752.792.59
Trinidad and Tobago2.963.203.463.503.573.483.223.143.142.90
Tunisia3.873.843.664.083.753.403.052.922.922.97
Turkey3.323.383.413.373.493.573.863.693.693.47
Uganda3.213.313.343.403.503.583.733.683.683.79
Ukraine3.133.563.483.473.563.573.443.503.503.51
United Arab Emirates3.213.353.934.054.214.644.794.724.724.51
United Kingdom5.015.145.415.595.755.755.585.675.675.47
United States5.645.855.905.795.715.635.745.855.855.57
Uruguay2.702.943.433.753.793.723.603.593.593.44
Venezuela2.902.883.113.433.473.633.383.133.133.04
Vietnam2.903.133.503.663.403.243.343.273.273.33
Yemen1.511.862.121.951.921.89
Zambia2.462.993.323.553.753.783.553.483.483.49
Zimbabwe2.832.842.903.093.193.103.082.822.822.50

This index represents the average score from 1-7 given by a large sample group in a particular country in response to the following question: “To what extent do business and universities collaborate on research and development (R&D)?” (1 = do not collaborate at all, 7 = collaborate extensively).

Source: World Economic Forum