De facto cultural globalization is calculated by taking into account a country’s trade in cultural goods (exports and imports of cultural goods), trade in personal services (exports and imports of personal, cultural and recreational services), international trademarks (applications to register a trademark with a national or regional Intellectual Property (IP) office by non residents in percent of all applications), McDonald’s restaurants (number of McDonald’s restaurants per capita) and IKEA stores (number of IKEA stores per capita).

    Source: KOF Swiss Economic Institute